Joseph and His Friend: A Story of Pennsylvania (1870)

Author: Bayard Taylor

What is the connection between the author and the queer community?

According to The Library Company of Philadelphia, Bayard Taylor was a writer who traveled widely in the nineteenth century (“That’s So Gay”). Although he was married to a woman, he may have been queer. Two months after his wedding, his wife died (“That’s So Gay”). Taylor then lived on a boat with a German businessman on the Nile River in Egypt (“That’s So Gay”). Eventually Taylor married the man’s niece (“That’s So Gay”).

Taylor
Bayard Taylor

What is the plot of this book?

Joseph is a young adult in his twenties looking for love. His parents are deceased, and he lives with his aunt on a fairly successful farm in the Pennsylvanian countryside. One night he attends a party of a good friend, and he meets cosmopolitan city girl Julia Blessing. Joseph is quite handsome, and other girls pine for him. Nevertheless, Julia woos him, and they pursue a fairly brief courtship before marriage.

Before Joseph and Julia get married, Joseph visits Julia’s father in the city. Julia’s father is preoccupied with making money, to the point where he has actually lost quite a bit of his once considerable wealth. Mr. Blessing uses Julia and his other daughter Clementina to marry men who can provide capital for his investments. Once Joseph and Julia are married, Julia takes an active role in convincing Joseph to finance her father’s investments. There are warning signs before they even get married, and the manipulation of Joseph only gets worse after the wedding.

However, something miraculous happens before the wedding. On his way back to the countryside after a visit with the Blessings, Joseph is in a very minor train accident. Joseph practically falls into the arms of Philip Held during this accident. Philip, who is five years older than Joseph, not only has a dreamy name, but he also catches Joseph’s eye on the train even before the accident. In fact, the men lock eyes. Their instant connection fortifies into a deep friendship after the accident. Although Joseph has just met Philip, Joseph invites Philip to be the best man at his wedding. Philip declines because he was the former fiancé of Clementina. Clementina ditched him once his finances took a tumble.

After getting married, Joseph becomes increasingly frustrated with Julia and Mr. Blessing, as these two persistently pressure him to spend money on risky investments. Meanwhile, Joseph often thinks of Philip longingly. Eventually Joseph discovers that Mr. Blessing’s investments are a complete sham. Joseph becomes very angry with Mr. Blessing and Julia, and Julia and Joseph argue extensively. In the heat of the argument, with Julia believing her marriage is over, she poisons herself. The poisoning slowly takes effect, with Joseph, his friend Lucy Henderson, and a doctor around to witness Julia’s demise.

After Julia dies, suspicion grows about the nature of her death, as Julia had metaphorically claimed that Joseph was killing her. In a relatively uneventful trial, Joseph is proven innocent of killing of Julia. Philip works tirelessly to produce the evidence that clears Joseph’s name. After the trial Joseph goes on a long trip to Nevada and California. Joseph and Philip write each other tender letters. Nevertheless, at the close of the novel when Joseph returns, Philip has a sense that Joseph will marry his sister Madeline. This makes Philip feel sad and lonely.

How is this book queer?

Although Joseph and Philip both have some interest in women, their feelings for each other are far more potent than their feelings for the women in the book. Joseph begins the book wanting love, without quite knowing what love is. He expresses some interest in Julia and Lucy at a party at the beginning of the book. Joseph expresses desire for Julia, but he never expresses love for her. He notices the “sweetness of her lips” and grows faint thinking about touching the “edge of her dress!” Admittedly, these are very mild expressions of his interest. Perhaps Taylor deliberately portrays Joseph’s interest in Julia comically in order to question whether he actually has strong feelings for Julia.

From the very beginning, Joseph values his close male friendship with his best friend Elwood. Even after the party where he meets Julia, Joseph experiences “a tenderer feeling of friendship than he had ever before felt, and begged him [Elwood] to stay the night.” When Elwood sleeps over, “They occupied the same room; and neither seemed inclined to sleep.” Though they stay up talking about Julia and Lucy, Joseph seems to value more the conversation with Elwood rather than the topic of the conversation.

Everything changes when Philip Held arrives in Joseph’s life. When Joseph first notices Philip on the train, “All at once his eye was attracted by a new face, three or four seats from his own.” He recognizes in Philip’s face a “developed character” and “the more he studied the face, the more he was conscious of its attraction.” Philip and Joseph play eye tag with each other on the train. Philip gives him a look that says, “We are men, let us know each other!” After the train accident, they hold hands and lean on each other. Joseph sleeps on Philip’s shoulder as the train goes forward.

The encounter between Philip and Joseph serves as the foundation for a solid relationship. Before his wedding Joseph thinks a lot more about Philip than Julia: “… but towards Philip his heart sprang with an instinct beyond his control.” As Joseph grows apprehensive before the wedding, Philip reassures him. Philip proclaims that Joseph is “nearer than a brother,” and Philip tells Joseph that he knows that they are in each other’s hearts. Philip says, “A man’s perfect friendship is rarer than a woman’s love” and they clasp hands. Immediately after the wedding, Philip’s “dark gray eyes, warm with more than brotherly love” and Philip’s “faithful thoughts” haunt Joseph.

In contrast, Joseph has a contentious relationship with the pastor, Mr. Chaffinch, who visits him after the train accident. Joseph thinks Christians should be more concerned with deeds than beliefs, and Mr. Chaffinch disagrees. They have several arguments over whether Christian beliefs or good deeds matter more. This discussion becomes a recurring theme that Joseph and Philip eventually address in a very oblique way.

The clearest suggestion of same-sex desire and intimacy between Philip and Joseph begins with an opaque discussion of their desire. Joseph says, “If you and I, Philip, stand above the level of common natures, feeling higher needs and claiming other rights, let us shape them according to the law which is above, not that which is below.” Again, Joseph seems to challenge the morality of a religion created by humans, as people like Mr. Chaffinch perceive this morality. Between the lines, Joseph seems perfectly comfortable with the morality of his intimacy with Philip. This conversation eventually ends in intimacy of an unclear, yet highly suggestive nature:

“They took each other’s hands. The day was fading, the landscape was silent, and only the twitter of nesting birds was heard in the boughs above them. Each gave way to the impulse of his manly love, rarer, alas! but as tender and true as the love of woman, and they drew nearer and kissed each other.”

Philip eventually expresses his agreement with Joseph regarding a revised vision of morality: “[T]he world needs a new code of ethics. We must cure the unfortunate tendencies of some qualities that seem good, and extract the good from others that seem evil.” Philip even says that he has learned to be dependent on God through knowing Joseph. In the context of the story, Joseph and Philip seem to believe that love between two men is beautiful and sacred. In contrast, the greed of the religious Blessing family is socially acceptable, though it should not be.

Philip is eventually Joseph’s savior, as the former finds the evidence to exculpate the latter. Philip rejoices at this outcome: “‘You are free!’ His eyes sparkled and his face glowed.” Joseph is grateful and shows his gratitude: “He drew his chair near to Philip’s, their hands closed upon each other, and they were entirely happy in the tender and perfect manly love which united them.”

Sadly, Philip and Joseph do not become lovers in the end. In the end, Philip is certain that Joseph and Madeline, Philip’s sister, have fallen in love. This ending is absurd, as Madeline is an extremely minor character with few lines of dialogue or any real purpose in the narrative. Perhaps Madeline’s only real purpose is to serve as a beard in the final moments of the book. In that era, having Philip and Joseph’s romance come to full fruition would not have been acceptable. At least they both live with the possibility of remaining close friends.

Who would enjoy reading this book?

If you enjoy beautiful love stories with innuendo, tension, and a few plot twists, you will like this book. You may not like this book if indirect depictions of male queerness frustrate you. If overt suggestions of queer romance are not enough and you need something more explicit, this is not the book for you. Regardless, the title of this book is annoying by today’s standards. Joseph and Philip are clearly lovers in the book, and they are more than just friends. It is incredibly frustrating when people refer to queer male lovers as “friends” or “buddies.”

Reference

Taylor, Bayard. Joseph and His Friend: A Story of Pennsylvania, Produced by Barry Abrahamsen, Mary Glenn Krause, Chris Curnow, and the Online Distributed Proofreading Team at http://www.pgdp.net, 2017. Kindle ed. Project Gutenberg, http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/54863

“That’s So Gay: Out Early America (Men Together).” The Library Company of Philadelphia, 2015, http://librarycompany.org/gayatlcp/section2.html. Accessed 14 Oct. 2018.

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Moby Dick (1851)

Author: Herman Melville

What is the connection between the author and the queer community?

According to the Amazon Classics kindle version of this book, Herman Melville was born in New York City in 1819. He came from a modest background, and he had little formal education. In addition to working as a schoolteacher, he was a sailor on a whaling ship. Eventually, he began writing, but his novels were not popular when they were published. He managed to make money from his short stories, but he was not widely known during his life.

Melville dedicates Moby Dick to famous author Nathaniel Hawthorne: “In token of my admiration for his genius, this book is inscribed to Nathaniel Hawthorne.” The two authors wrote many letters to each other, and Melville even moved to Hawthorne’s neighborhood to be closer to him (McCrum). It is not known if Hawthorne and Melville were friends or lovers.

HermanMoby
Herman Melville

What is the plot of this book?

Ishmael is a sailor who seeks adventure on a whaling ship. The book follows his journey from New York to Massachusetts, where he boards the Pequod as a sailor. Before leaving, he meets Queequeg, a harpooneer from the Pacific Islands, who also boards the Pequod. Once on the ship, the crew discovers that Captain Ahab is on a mission for vengeance. Ahab is determined to hunt and kill Moby Dick. This great white whale ripped off Ahab’s leg on a previous voyage, and, as a result, Ahab walks on an ivory leg. Ahab offers a gold coin to the person that finds Moby Dick. For the rest of the book, the crew searches far and wide for the whale, encountering several ships along the way. As Ishmael recounts the events of the voyage, he goes into great detail about everything one could possibly want to know about whales.

Eventually, Captain Ahab finds Moby Dick, and he keeps his own gold coin. After several attempts, Ahab manages to stab Moby Dick, but the whale drags Ahab out of his boat and into the distance. Among the turmoil of hunting Moby Dick, the whale manages to demolish the Pequod and all of its boats. The only survivor is Ishmael. Ishmael floats away on a coffin that was originally constructed for Queequeg when he became very ill. Another ship finds and rescues Ishmael.

How is this book queer?

This book is queer in so many ways. The words “queer” and “gay” appear frequently throughout the novel, although these words had different meanings in the nineteenth century. The language itself is at many points extremely suggestive, but the relationship between Ishmael and Queequeg is overtly queer.

When Ishmael arrives in Massachusetts, Ishmael finds a bed in which to sleep at an inn. However, the landlord informs Ishmael that he must share a bed with another man, as the inn is completely booked. Initially, Ishmael objects vehemently to the idea of sharing a bed. Once he discovers that his bedmate is Queequeg, a menacing, huge, dark, tattooed “cannibal” who wields sharp weapons, Ishmael is intimidated.

However, Queequeg is surprisingly willing to share his bed. Ishmael suddenly sees Queequeg as a “clean, comely looking cannibal.” At first, the two bedmates keep their distance from each other. By the morning the situation is much different: “… I found Queequeg’s arm thrown over me in the most loving and affectionate manner. You had almost thought I had been his wife.” Queequeg fascinates Ishmael: “… I began to feel myself mysteriously drawn towards him. And those same things that would have repelled most others, they were the very magnets that thus drew me.” Queequeg is the brooding bad boy, and Ishmael is the smitten schoolboy.

The following night Queequeg looks “pleased” that he will again share a bed with Ishmael. Queequeg touches Ishmael around the waist, and Ishmael concludes that they are “married.” Later, Ishmael kisses Queequeg’s nose, and they undress before going to bed again. Throwing caution to the wind, Queequeg comfortably tosses his leg over Ishmael’s leg.

However, their relationship is not just physical. They talk in bed like a married couple. When Queequeg fasts and maintains a vow of silence to honor his religion, Ishmael becomes very concerned about Queequeg’s wellbeing. Much later on the Pequod, Ishmael declares that Queequeg will be the executor of his will. When Queequeg attends to a whale carcass outside the ship, Ishmael remains in the ship tied to Queequeg with a rope. Ishmael is Queequeg’s literal anchor.

Nevertheless, after the Pequod sets sail, the narrative rarely mentions encounters between Ishmael and Queequeg. This is so frustrating! When Queequeg becomes ill, Ishmael seems mildly sad, but the details are scant. The reader yearns for Ishmael to prostrate before Queequeg’s ailing body with grief and melancholy. That did not happen. Moreover, Ishmael and Queequeg fade into the background as the obsession with whales and Captain Ahab’s lust for whale murder dominate the story.

Who would enjoy reading this book?

If you are miraculously patient and you have an intense interest in whales, this book is for you. Not much happens in this book, but the book is quite long. If that is fine for you, enjoy! Some people, including me, find this book frustrating to read because the pace is very plodding and Melville writes on many tangents, many involving minutiae about whales. Melville writes in long sentences, which can be difficult to follow. If you are only interested in the queer aspects of this book, stop reading after the Pequod sets sail.

Reference

McCrum, Robert. “Herman Melville, the Last Great Enigma of American Literature.” The Guardian, 30 Jan. 2011, https://www.theguardian.com/books/2011/jan/30/herman-melville-mark-twain-parini. Accessed 15 Oct. 2018.

Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. Kindle ed., AmazonClassics, 2018.

Year in Arcadia: A Shepherd’s Calendar (1805)

Author: Duke August von Sachsen-Gotha (translation and introduction by Carl Skoggard)

What is the connection between the author and the queer community?

As the brilliant translator Carl Skoggard explains in the Introduction, Duke August von Sachsen-Gotha was a remarkable, eccentric person who did not abide by traditional gender norms. To learn more about the duke, I recommend reading Skoggard’s introduction. According to Skoggard, the character of Alethophone, a prophetess, is really a representation of the duke in drag.

Duke
Duke August von Sachsen-Gotha

What is the plot of this book?

As the title suggests, the story takes place in Arcadia, the region of Greece, in the country’s ancient glory days. In this idyllic and pastoral setting, young shepherds and shepherdesses pursue love with great success. The book is a series of interwoven episodes about love among shepherds and shepherdesses in ancient Arcadia. Nevertheless, the queer love story stands out, while the other stories falter. Beautiful Julanthiskos pines for the gorgeous Alexis. The two young men flirt with each other, but nothing initially results from this flirtation.

Julanthiskos is smitten with Alexis, but Alexis is coy. Julanthiskos becomes heartbroken when he believes that Alexis spurns him. At this time of crisis, the prophetess Alethophone makes a grand entrance and divines the futures of the young shepherds, including Julanthiskos. Although her prophecy is vague, she advises Julanthiskos to have faith that his love will come to fruition.

Alexis becomes trapped on a cliff after he loses his companions in the rough terrain of the mountains. After slaying a beast on the cliff, Alexis is injured and in great peril. Meanwhile, Julanthiskos sacrifices his necklace to the god Hermes, and Hermes in return leads him to the cliff where Alexis is trapped. Julanthiskos effortlessly traverses the rough terrain and miraculously leaps over a chasm to rescue Alexis. Julanthiskos’s steadfast commitment to Alexis wins him over: “You softened my heart through faithfulness.”

How is this book queer?

This book was the first novel (in its modern form) to include an explicitly queer male love story. Ancient narratives like Satyricon addressed male same-sex desire, but these stories are problematic because they portray queer encounters that involve teenage boys in positions of slavery. In addition, numerous works such as The Tale of Genji and Father Goriot only suggest or obliquely mention in passing that a male character may have same-sex desires. By contrast, Year in Arcadia is refreshingly and unmistakably queer.

The two main characters are romantic men indeed. Despite the author’s repeated focus on the great physical beauty of both Julanthiskos and Alexis, the commitment of the former and the vulnerability of the latter stand out as their greatest strengths.

Indeed, the loyalty of Julanthiskos is clear throughout the narrative, especially in contrast to the infidelity of his brother Barys. Serving as a symbol of male heterosexuality, Barys drinks a lot, he parties, and he makes love to a lot of women. He likes to hunt. We get it. He is the typical “manly” man. In fact, the other female characters remark on the difference between Barys and Julanthiskos. When one female character shows frustration with the infidelity of men, another female character interjects that not all men are this way. In fact, Julanthiskos is extremely committed and reliable.

Equating fidelity with sexual orientation is not fair or accurate. Nevertheless, the overwhelmingly positive portrayal of the main queer character and the jocular critique of the straight male character do not dominate the narrative. Although Barys may not be completely loyal to women, he is not a homophobe. He shows concern when his brother is heartbroken over Alexis, for example. The reader has clearly entered a world where everyone, including the virile heterosexual character, accepts and supports love between men.

It is easy to support love between men when the queer men are gorgeous. The author emphasizes the physical beauty of Julanthiskos and Alexis, largely through their admirers. For example, a female character dreams about Julanthiskos being naked. The female characters fawn over both Julanthiskos and Alexis. Perhaps the author chooses these female reactions to demonstrate that these two men are clearly queer and lack interest in women who throw themselves at them. The words and actions of these women frequently made one want to groan. Nevertheless, these men are not portrayed as campy, simplistic cartoons, as has been the tendency in media portrayals for a long time. These queer men are raw, passionate, and beautiful.

Who would enjoy reading this book?

If you are interested in ancient Greece and queer male romance, this book is for you. Although the narrative was not thrilling, this is a sweet, simple book to enjoy in an afternoon. Most impressive is the duke’s unabashed portrayal of queer male love in a time when other authors only suggested that their characters were queer.

Reference

von Sachsen-Gotha, August. Year in Arcadia: A Shepherd’s Calendar. Translated by Carl Skoggard, Tropen Verlag, 1999.